Gaelic and Welsh influence:

Today’s Halloween customs are thought to have been influenced by folks customs and beliefs from the Celtic-speaking countries, a number of that are believed to have pagan roots. Jack Santino, a folklorist, writes that “there was throughout Ireland an uneasy armistice existing between customs and beliefs related to Christianity and people related to religions that were Irish before Christianity arrived”. scholar Nicholas Rogers, exploring the origins of Halloween, notes that whereas “some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead known as Parentalia, it’s more sometimes connected to the Celtic festival of Samhain, that comes from the old Irish for ‘summer’s end’.”
Samhain  was the primary and most vital of the four quarter days within the medieval Gaelic calendar and was celebrated on 31st October – 1st November in Ireland, Scotland and therefore the isle of Man.A kindred festival was held at the same time of year by the Brittonic Celts, known as calan Gaeaf in Wales, Kalan Gwav in Cornwall and Kalan Goañv in Brittany; a name that means “first day of winter”. For the Celts, the day ended and started at sunset; so the festival began on the evening before seven November by fashionable reckoning  purpose between equinox and solstice. Samhain and Calan Gaeaf are mentioned in a number of the earliest Irish and Welsh literature. The names are employed by historians to seek advice from Celtic Halloween customs up till the 19th century, and are still the Gaelic and Welsh names for Halloween.
Samhain/Calan Gaeaf marked the top of the harvest season and starting of winter or the ‘darker half’ of the year. Like Beltane/Calan Mai, it absolutely was seen as a imaginal time, once the boundary between this world and therefore the Other world diluted . This meant the Aos Sí , the ‘spirits’ or ‘fairies’, may additional simply get this world and were notably active. Most students see the Aos Sí as “degraded versions of ancient gods  whose power remained active within the people’s minds even when they’d been formally replaced by later spiritual beliefs”. The Aos Sí were each revered and feared, with people usually invoking the protection of God once approaching their dwellings.At Samhain, it absolutely was believed that the Aos Sí required to be propitiated to confirm that the individuals and their placental survived the winter. Offerings of food and drink, or parts of the crops, were left outside for the Aos Sí. The souls of the dead were additionally same to go back their homes seeking welcome.Places were set at the board and by the fireplace to welcome them. The assumption that the souls of the dead come home on one night of the year and should be appeased appears to own ancient origins and is found in several cultures throughout the globe. In nineteenth century Ireland, “candles would be lit and prayers formally offered for the souls of the dead. when this the consumption, drinking, and games would begin”.
Throughout Ireland and Great Britain, the home festivities enclosed rituals and games meant to foretell one’s future, particularly concerning death and wedding. Apples and nuts were usually utilized in these divination rituals. They enclosed apple bobbing, nut cookery, scrying or mirror-gazing, gushing liquefied lead or egg whites into water, dream interpretation, and others. Special bonfires were lit and there have been rituals involving them. Their flames, smoke and ashes were deemed to own protecting and cleansing powers, and were additionally used for divination. In some places, torches lit from the fire were carried sunwise around homes and fields to guard them. It’s recommended that the fires were a sort of imitative or sympathetic magic – they mimicked the Sun, serving to the “powers of growth” and holding back the decay and darkness of winter. In Scotland, these bonfires and divination games were illegal by the church elders in some parishes. In Wales, bonfires were lit to “prevent the souls of the dead from falling to earth”. Later, these bonfires served to stay “away the devil”.
 

An early 20th-century Irish Halloween mask displayed at the Museum of Country Life. 

From at least the sixteenth century, the festival included mumming and guising in ireland, Scotland, the isle of Man and Wales. This concerned people going comprehensive in costume (or in disguise), sometimes reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. it’s going to have originally been a convention whereby individuals impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, almost like the custom of souling . Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to guard oneself from them. It’s steered that the mummers and guisers “personify the old spirits of the winter, WHO demanded reward in exchange permanently fortune”. In components of southern Ireland, the guisers included a hobby horse. a person dressed as a lair Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses – a number of that had pagan overtones – in exchange for food. If the household given food it might expect luck from the ‘Muck Olla’; not doing thus would bring misfortune. In scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, typically threatening to try and do mischief if they weren’t welcomed. F. marian McNeill suggests the ancient festival included individuals in costume representing the spirits, and that faces were marked with ashes taken from the sacred bale-fire. In components of Wales, men went concerning dressed as fearsome beings known as gwrachod. within the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, youngsters in Glamorgan and Orkney cross-dressed.
Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and hobby horses were a part of alternative yearly festivals. However, within the Celtic-speaking regions they were “particularly appropriate to an evening upon that supernatural beings were aforesaid to be abroad and will be imitated or warded off by human wanderers”. From at least the eighteenth century, “imitating malignant spirits” led to playing pranks in Ireland and therefore the Scottish Highlands. sporting costumes and playing pranks at Hallowe’en spread to England within the twentieth century. Historically, pranksters used hollow out turnips or mangel wurzels typically carved with grotesque faces as lanterns. By those that created them, the lanterns were diversely aforesaid to represent the spirits, or were wont to obstruct evil spirits. They were common in components of Ireland and therefore the Scottish Highlands within the nineteenth century, additionally as in Somerset . within the twentieth century they unfold to alternative components of England and have become usually called jack-o’-lanterns.

jack-o’-lanterns

Read more : History of Halloween: Christian influence